As of January 2011 the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) now requires that grant proposals include a supplementary data management plan (DMP) of no more than two pages, which describes how the proposal conforms to the new NSF policy on the dissemination and sharing of research results. Elements of the DMP can include:
Types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and other materials produced in the course of the project;
The standards to be used for data and metadata format and content;
Policies for access and sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements;
Policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and
Plans for archiving data, samples and other research products, and for preservation of access to them.
Additionally, in February 2013, the Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) released a memorandum to the heads of federal agencies, directing all agencies that fund $100 million or more in scientific research annually to create a plan to make the results of that research freely available to the public.
"Research results" refers both to peer-reviewed publications and the underlying data supporting that research;
A 12-month post-publication embargo is a suggested guideline, with some flexibility for different disciplines;
While the memo is directed specifically at agencies supporting scientific research, other agencies, such as the NEH, have indicated that they will work to implement a similar plan.